The hottest ten problems and four ways out Zhang N

2022-08-18
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With the efforts of all parties, the total market volume continues to expand. It is estimated that the overall space of the sanitation service market will exceed 250billion yuan by 2020. While making certain achievements, we should also be soberly aware that there are many difficulties in China's environmental sanitation market-oriented reform, which requires the joint efforts of all parties to continue to develop and expand the environmental sanitation market and better benefit the people

I. Problems and manifestations of the current sanitation market-oriented reform

the sanitation market-oriented reform started in 2000, rose with the purchase of services by the government, and entered a period of rapid development in the past five years. It can be said that the market is still in a period of development, which is a new thing, and the existing problems are inevitable, mainly in ten aspects

first, the whole is fragmented. For example, in a northern city, the sanitation service area in the main urban area was divided into nearly 20 bid sections, and each administrative region was divided into bid sections on average. Finally, more than a dozen sanitation enterprises won the bid to enter and provide services; Another example is the Administrative Region under the jurisdiction of a city in the south, which divides the road sanitation operation in the region into six bid sections for bidding, and requires bidders to bid both ways. Similar phenomena are common and are the mainstream of the current sanitation market, which leads to the fragmentation of the market. Whether it is road operation, garbage removal and transportation, or screening and transportation, it has its break even point, which is mainly determined by the operating area, garbage volume, transportation distance, operating frequency and other factors. A city is divided into many operation areas, making various equipment in a state of relative overcapacity. The operation unsaturated rate and vehicle idling rate have increased significantly, increasing emissions, traffic congestion and costs. If the bid sections served by the winning enterprises are separated from each other, it will be even worse, which means that several project companies and management teams should be established in a city, together with the vehicles and facilities belonging to the same enterprise. Because they belong to different project companies, they cannot share and work together. In this case, no enterprise is willing to increase investment, coupled with the reality of low profits in the environmental sanitation industry, enterprises are also afraid to update vehicle equipment and improve operation standards and quality. In addition, the environment is a system. All kinds of solid waste pollutants have no regional labels, dividing a city into many markets. As a result, no one is responsible for the whole environment of the city. It is still the continuation of the "tragedy of public land", which will seriously endanger the safety of urban operation

second, the low-end development trend is serious. According to incomplete statistics, at present, there are more than 8000 enterprises engaged in environmental sanitation services in China, and the vast majority of enterprises are small in scale. Enterprises with an annual service fee income of more than 10million Yuan account for less than 1%. Many enterprises begin to participate in the government's purchase of services by adding a few operating vehicles and hiring a cleaning team at a low price. This is related to people's insufficient understanding of the specialization of sanitation services for a long time. They think that sanitation services are as simple as sweeping the floor, transporting garbage, digging a pit and burying garbage. Based on this understanding, those engaged in equipment manufacturing, waste incineration power generation, water treatment, and capital play have all entered the environmental sanitation industry, focusing on the continuous growth of the market in recent years, with the main purpose of "enclosure on horseback". More importantly, some small enterprises simplify environmental sanitation services into road cleaning and garbage removal. As for the basic requirements of "harmlessness, reduction and recycling", they simply cannot meet the basic requirements. Not only that, leachate pollution, water and soil pollution caused by informal landfill and subsequent safety are important hidden dangers

the third is the imbalance of supply and demand structure. The rise of the sanitation market due to the purchase of services by the government is rooted in the imbalance between the supply side structure and the demand side. The effective supply of sanitation services provided by the government to the society through public institutions is insufficient. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the effective supply with the help of market forces. However, the environmental sanitation services purchased by some local governments for the people are not based on the demand side, but more in order to throw away the burden, or reform for the purpose of reform. It has not been fully revealed at present to change the nature of market players, how to reflect the wishes of the people, and whether to focus on solving the imbalance and insufficiency in environmental sanitation services. With the improvement of living standards, the people have higher and higher requirements for the living environment and pay more and more attention to environmental protection. The urban and rural environment should be clean and tidy, both in face and inside; Each trash can and garbage building should be clean and free of odor; The garbage that the people have carefully classified should have their own places to go; Public toilets should be easy to find, good-looking, smelly and easy to use... But now they are mainly face-saving services, which are satisfied with "yes" and "passable" on the surface, and there is a big gap with the people's requirements for details

fourth, the contract performance risk increased. Market economy is also a contract economy. If the agreed matters of both parties cannot be fully realized, the risk of market uncertainty will be increased. As a public service, its impact on urban operation safety and social stability is huge. Now the main performance risk is that due to the impact of local government debt risk, the timeliness and adequacy of some local government financial payments have been tested, and those small-scale enterprises without business models have to withdraw from the market. There are also some local governments, relying on the strong position of the government, by requiring the project company to increase more service content to reduce public expenditure in disguise, transfer the cost of public services, or transfer the problems left over from history to the project company, which leads to the overburden of enterprises and forced them to withdraw from the market. There are also some enterprises that have to withdraw from the market because they are unprofessional, small-scale, poorly managed, or won the bid at a price lower than the cost price at the beginning, resulting in the actual failure to meet the requirements of the government and the masses, and even causing new environmental pollution problems. These problems are now relatively concentrated in underdeveloped areas, but also tend to spread to big cities, especially those fragmented markets, which are at great risk. Problems such as the tense relationship between government and business, the deterioration of the business environment, the increase of administrative charges and administrative fines are all external manifestations of the performance risk, which should be found in time and paid attention to, so as to prevent the retrogression of market-oriented reform

fifth, the reform of payment mechanism lags behind. The most traditional way is cost based payment under the public institution system, that is, how much it costs and how much the government allocates. Although the government purchases services now, on the surface, the government pays based on results, in fact, the service price is based on the cost payment mechanism. Based on incomplete data, the government calculates the quota and gives the total price and individual price of services. However, because the market is decentralized, especially when the facilities on the logistics nodes belong to different operation entities, the actual payment is implemented at a fixed price between different nodes, which makes there is no competitive relationship between upstream and downstream, and each business chain hopes that the more garbage is the better: the front-end garbage classification hopes that the more garbage is the better, so it can get more subsidies; The middle-end transshipment hopes that the more garbage, the better. In this way, the more revenue will be calculated according to ton kilometers; The terminal hopes that the more garbage entering the landfill, the better, so that it can make more money. As for how to increase in the process, it's more fishy. In short, this payment mechanism leads to a lack of motivation for enterprise transformation and upgrading. The project company will only focus on places where more money can be made, and where data fraud can be made, no one is responsible for "reduction, harmlessness and recycling". Moreover, the payment mechanism is not reformed, and public institutions have no incentive to take the initiative to reform

sixth, it is difficult to classify garbage. It is mainly manifested in insufficient infrastructure construction, simple front-end facilities, insufficient quantity, single function, low technical content, mainly relying on labor, and high cost; The middle-end solid waste logistics system is not perfect, the renewal of vehicle equipment is slow, and the logistics cost is high; The construction of terminal processing capacity is incomplete. Affected by various ideas from abroad, there are many terminal repeated construction and uncompleted projects, many facilities cannot play their due supporting role, and the construction of urban mineral development base is not effectively supported, which makes the construction of the overall terminal comprehensive processing capacity lag behind. Infrastructure investment has the characteristics of long construction cycle, high professional standards, high requirements for full caliber and whole process management, high requirements for facility coordination, and long return cycle. It is not achievable by ordinary enterprises, nor can it be achieved in the short term. However, some governments now compress the franchise period and lower the price of services purchased by the government, resulting in a low return on infrastructure investment and a long return cycle. Therefore, no enterprise is willing to make medium and long-term investment planning, and some enterprises without a sense of society will build low-quality or even "tofu dregs" projects. Without the terminal comprehensive treatment capacity, the front-end garbage classification cannot be supported; Without a modern solid waste logistics system, there will be mixed loading and transportation, so in the end, the four classification model of waste is difficult to build, and can only stay in the model project stage, without replicability

seventh, the business model is not clear and financing is difficult. At the beginning, the government purchased services in the form of BOT, but now it is generally in the mode of PPP. The government hopes to leverage more social capital with limited expenditure through the PPP mode; Social capital hopes to let the government endorse through PPP mode, reduce the difficulty of financing, especially private capital, which can better obtain bank support. However, when the PPP model encountered financial innovation, the taste changed. Various funds turned the PPP model into a financial lever. Under the policy of "three deletions, one reduction and one subsidy", the PPP model became the target of public criticism. Although the regulation suppressed the irrational impulse of the market, it also limited the landing of PPP projects. From the perspective of the sanitation industry itself, the unclear business model and the government's monopoly on assets restrict the financing channels of enterprises, making the sanitation industry mainly rely on bank loans. Therefore, it is vulnerable to macroeconomic and macro-control, resulting in poor market development and limited market-oriented reform process

eighth, the market volume is still small and the space for industrialization is limited. We may think that the sanitation market is going to reach 250billion yuan, which is very large. In fact, compared with China's population and economic aggregate, the sanitation market is relatively small, and the space for industrialization is very limited. For example, Sweden has a population of less than 10million, but the annual output value of solid waste recycling alone is as high as about 190billion yuan. The contribution of the solid waste industry to economic growth accounts for 5-10% of the total GDP, and has remained at a relatively stable level for a long time. At present, the proportion of environmental sanitation market output value in GDP in China can be almost ignored. This shows that China's sanitation industrialization is far from developed, a potential trillion market has not been formed, the entire industry is still in the state of "working with money", and the ability of independent development is not formed

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